Wednesday, July 7, 2010

My Paris Game AI Conference Presentation

I have now successfully vacated my vacation, purged the most urgent work related queue, and finally got some time to clean up the "slides" from my AIGD10 presentation. Without further due, here's link to the presentation code and executables for Windows and OSX:
Use right mouse button to navigate the presentation. Some of the diagrams are interactive, I have included some usage notes below them. It is not meant to be intuitive, just a quickly hacked version of what I hope powerpoint would be :)

The code is quite ugly at points and probably not as efficient as you might like. I have tried to make comments around the important chunks of code where things need improvement. I left some things unoptimized for the sake of readability.

I'm still wondering what might be the best way to transcript the presentation. Here's quick overview of the navigation loop idea.

Navigation Loop
The idea of navigation loop is to cover all the things from A* to velocity selection which are needed to make character move in the world. One of the main goals was to make the agent movement as flexible as possible so that you can concentrate on movement styles or even multi-agent navigation instead of focusing all your energy to try to stay on path (that naked tight rope dancer is that).

Your system will get horribly, horribly, horribly convoluted when you try to follow (linear) spline path and especially when you mix and match collision representations!

The path to the goal is represented all the time as linear array of connected polygons. We never find straight string pulled path to the goal location. This linear array of polygons is found before we start to move the character. You can use your favorite search method to do that. It probably will be A*, I use breath first search in the demo.

Foreach (Simulation Step) {

At each simulation step you first calculate the next corner to move to. This can be implemented efficiently using the Funnel Algorithm. Instead of trying to stay on path, we can always query the next sub-goal towards the target using Funnel Algorithm.

The next step is to apply steering. The demo contain a couple of different styles from robotic straight path moving, to smooth path movement to drunken movement.

The next step is to move the agent. This is done so that the agent is always constrained to the navmesh. The result from this movement step is a linear array of polygons that we visited through when we moved the agent [1].

As final step is to finally fix up the corridor based on the visited array. Most of the time this fix up will shrink the path corridor, but in case the movement lead the character outside the corridor, new polygons will be added in the beginning of the array.

The result of this loop is that no matter how we steer, we are always able to query the next subgoal. If the steering is not totally stupid, the agent will reach the target with certain probability.

Later in the presentation you can find how to extend the loop to contain velocity planning stage.

Data Dependancies

The navigation loop idea assumes certain things about the data. The dynamic obstacles are always assumed to be traversable in one way or another. The system tries its' best to resolve collision conflicts, but in certain cases you need to detect dead-locks and figure alternative ways to handle them, i.e. disable collisions or use special animations to switch places.

The local velocity planning cannot deal with local minima (pockets, U-shapes, etc). If you have larger or more complicated obstacles they need to represented in the navigation graph.


I'd like to thanks David Miles and Thomas Young for laying down the ground work on their earlier articles and talks. I have not seen similar complete system represented before, but I don't claim it to be particularly unique. Such holistic systems as quite common in motion planning literature.

The sort of "anti-points" of this presentation were: 1) A* != navigation, 2) (Linear)Spline is horrible representation of a path. Unfortunately I know that the old fragments of wisdom on navigation will stick with us for years to come .


[1] I have blogged a couple of times about constrained movement along navigation meshes. I think the idea is sound, but I'm still figuring out a couple of implementation details.

Firstly, the idea works really when on triangles, but not so well on polys.

Secondly there are certain cases where the demo implementation fails when the next clamped location is at a vertex and both of the neighbour edges are valid exit edges. Need to have better heuristic for this. The system is always able to resolve this the next update, but it is annoying nonetheless.


  1. Great presentation, which I was taught VO this way !

  2. Putting the code up and all. You're a hero, Mikko.

  3. Amazing presentation Mikko - a great way to start the day!

  4. I wish there would more power-powerpoints like this. :-D

  5. Wow... very slick presentation.

  6. Amazing presentation, you rock!